martes, 20 de noviembre de 2012

Psicoigiene e Psicologia Istituzionale

Psicoanalisi applicata agli individui, ai gruppi e alle instituzione.
José Bleger.

Open publication - Free publishing - More igiene mentale
José Bleger è, nonostante gli anni, di sorprendente attualità. La seconda edizione italiana viene ripresentata da Ariele Psicoterapia che porta avanti la diffusione e l’attualizzazione del pensiero di questo autore. Nella prima parte J. Bleger, muovendo da un’ottica psicoanalitica, accompagna il lettore nella complessa dinamica dei gruppi e delle istituzioni come rete tra gruppi. Per il pensiero psicosocioanalitico, messo a punto da Luigi Pagliarani, è sempre stato di particolare interesse il concetto di “psicoigiene”, inteso quale ramo dell’igiene mentale costituito dall’applicazione delle conoscenze psicoanalitiche alla Polis. Ciò trova nel pensiero di Bleger un punto di riferimento imprescindibile. Nella seconda parte i testi mettono a fuoco la tecnica che sostiene il lavoro dello psicoterapeuta che incontra i pazienti, ma anche che opera nella selezione del personale o nella valutazione degli studenti o ancora in ambito associativo.

Abuso Sexual Infanto Juvenil: reflexiones desde la práctica.

Lilian Sanhueza Díaz - Editora.
Ediciones UC Temuco. Universidad Católica de Temuco. 1a ed. nov. 2010.

Esta obra está bajo Licencia Atribución - No Commercial - Licenciar Igual 2.0 Chile de Crative Commoms. quedan los derechos liberados para copiar, distribuir, mostrar y relaizar su trabajo y trabajos derivados basados en ella, pero sólo para propósitos no comerciales. Nada en esta licencia menoscaba o restringe los derechos morales de los autores.
abuso sexual en chile

Listen to the sounds of the human mind: Remixed brain scans reveal our inner music

  • Researchers suggest it could potentially lead to to advances useful for clinical diagnosis or biofeedback therapy

Scientists have combined and translated two kinds of brain waves into music, offering a unique insight into the functional activity of our minds. Researchers used electroencephalography scans to create the pitch and duration of notes and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to control the intensity of the music.

The study, published in the open access journal PLoS ONE, reveals an improved method to reflect the physiological processes of the scale-free brain in music. Previous research published in PLoS ONE by the same group has described how EEG amplitudes and waveforms may be converted to music. In the past, researchers at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate have also explored the possibility of a form of neuro-training called 'Brain Music'.

This uses music created from an individual's brain waves to help the individual move from an anxious state to a relaxed state. But this new study by Jing Lu and colleagues from the University of Electronic Science and Technology, China, uses simultaneous EEG and fMRI recordings to better represent the activity of the brain in musical notes.

According to the researchers, this brain music 'embodies the workings of the brain as art, providing a platform for scientists and artists to work together to better understand the links between music and the human brain.' The authors also suggest that combining EEG and fMRI data may produce music that better reflects the functional activity of the brain, potentially leading to advances useful for clinical diagnosis or biofeedback therapy.

viernes, 16 de noviembre de 2012

A psychologist with schizophrenia talks about what helps him function effectively

Taken from the book: “Abnormal Psychology” by David Homes.  Harpers Collins. ©1991.

Frederick J. Frese III is a psychologist who has struggled with schizophrenia for over 20 years. He described the onset of his symptoms and talked about his occasional “breakdowns”. Most of the time, however, he functions effectively, and in the following comments he describes some of the things that help. Dr. Frese believes it is important that the person whit schizophrenia be aware of the nature of the problem in order to develop effective coping strategies. He said:

Person whit schizophrenia needs to carefully study how they function. Until they can identify their deficits, it is very difficult to start building compensatory mechanisms that will enable them to function better… persons recovering from schizophrenia should be able to identify, and be on the lookout for, the sorts of persons, places, and things that can cause the type of stress that may precipitate their breakdowns. They should know to get to environments that are helpful.

Just as a diabetic must take action to control his or her blood-sugar level, persons recovering from schizophrenia must learn to monitor and take measures to counteract an imbalance in subcortical neurochemical activity. But unlike diabetes, schizophrenia seriously interferes with rational processes, and once the irrationality begins, the person may have great difficulty in acting in a rational or responsible manner.

To overcome the irrationality, Dr. Frese also emphasizes the importance of feedback from others:

Because of our disability, it is very difficult for us to know what we do that normal do not understand. Therefore, it is very helpful to have a trustworthy normal around to let us know what it is about our thoughts that perhaps it would be better not to share with everyone else. In my case, my wife constantly gives me feedback whenever I am saying or doing things that normal people may consider bizarre or offensive. Some things are rather obvious. If you are hearing voices, it is generally best not to talk back to them while normal are around. If your thoughts are dominated by the importance of the colors or similar sounds in the environment, you probably do not want to reveal too much about this to others.

Whit help, other disabled persons learn to compensate for their disabilities and frequently lead dignified, productive lives. The blind learn to use canes and seeing-eye dogs; those with limited use of their legs learn to use crutches and wheelchairs. For the mentally ill, however, the parameters of our disability are often not easily defined. We need help and feedback so we can understand exactly the nature of our disability.

Whit regard to the results of psychological testing, Dr. Frese said:

Assessment results that us we have “gross pathology”, “extreme confusion” or “diffuse brain damage” are not really helpful. We need very specific information. Perhaps new assessment instruments need to be developed, possibly with input from us, so that we can better learn how it is that we are different from others or where our psychological blind spots are.

Unfortunately, feedback is not always enough. Sometimes the symptoms overwhelm the person, who then loses the ability to function. When that occurs, some flexibility on the part of other people in the environment is necessary. Dr. Frese commented:

Schizophrenia tends to be an episodic disorder. We are going to have periodic breakdowns. This makes holding employment very difficult because the usual practice is to terminate employees who require frequent periods of leave. Work for us should be structured so that our disabilities are taken into account. Many of us are well educated and/or have useful skills when we are not having episodes. Why can´t jobs be structured for us so that our episodic breakdowns do not automatically result in our loss of employments? As with those in the general population, we like and needs to be a little more flexible in understanding that we are going to behave strangely from time and there are going to be time when we do not function well at all.

"Abnormal Psychology" by David Holmes. Part 4, p. 303. Case study 15.1.

miércoles, 14 de noviembre de 2012

El fútbol bajo la lupa del psicoanálisis

"No te pido 28 pases como el Barcelona, sólo tres pases seguiditos..." Tano Pasman.

La autora analiza el modo en que el hincha expresa en la cancha sus broncas, agresiones y alegrías.
Adriana Guraieb* - - junio 2012.

“Dios es redondo”.
Juan Villoro, escritor mexicano

Se escucha frecuentemente que el fútbol es pasión de multitudes y es propósito de estas líneas reflexionar acerca de la íntima e intensa relación del hincha con la pasión y la multitud.

El fútbol es nuestro deporte nacional por excelencia. Cuando hay partido, la hinchada se prepara con banderas, cantos, bombos, etcétera, todas expresiones del folclore futbolero que expresan el amor del hincha por su equipo, aunque también es cierto que cuando este “amor” es arrasador, puede convertirse en una batalla campal que lleve a extremos peligrosos.

Podemos pensar la pasión como una tendencia muy fuerte que anula la voluntad del apasionado y se siente arrasado por ella, y a diferencia de otros sentimientos como el amor, la simpatía, etcétera, las pasiones son muy difíciles de dominar. Sentimientos tales como el odio, la venganza y el amor pueden tomar características pasionales, y allí la persona pierde autonomía, pierde libertad para pensar y hasta puede tener comportamientos que se oponen a su propia moral.

La palabra pasión viene del latín “passio”, término asociado a la acción de padecer o sufrir. Por lo tanto, cuando hablamos de pasión, hablamos de un sentimiento muy intenso hacia un ideal, una persona o un equipo deportivo.

Dicen las voces populares: “Lleno de pasión, vacío de razón”. Ello significa que tendrá conductas muy entusiastas, frecuentemente incontroladas, con dificultades en planificar, pensar, aceptar, una realidad que contradiga su objetivo pasional, o sea que se produce una ruptura del equilibrio entre el pensar y el sentir y cuando ello sucede la persona lo manifiesta de diferentes modos: el desagrado, la tristeza, el desconsuelo y también, la violencia.

Decíamos también que el fútbol es un fenómeno de masas y esta palabra proviene del latín “massa” que significa “conjunto de gente que por su número puede influir en la marcha de los acontecimientos”.

Múltiples funciones del fútbol
En primer lugar, para el hincha su equipo representa el deseo de jugar al fútbol y de ganar, tener éxito, fama, dinero y poder.

También le da un sentido de pertenencia. Le posibilita una descarga emocional, una catarsis en la cancha como un lugar legalizado naturalizado para expresar broncas, gritos, insultos y todo tipo de manifestación de la frustración del hincha, no sólo por la pérdida de su equipo, sino por otro tipo de resentimientos y broncas personales laborales, y políticas que lo agobian y lo instan a descargar.

Podríamos decir que la cancha es un espacio permitido para que la multitud exprese sus síntomas de malestar psicosocial.

El hincha, al sentirse acompañado por otros que están a su lado, se permite liberarse de situaciones que están reprimidas y por más que sea algo momentáneo e ilusorio, si su equipo gana se siente poderoso y triunfador, y si su equipo pierde, se siente estafado, violentado. Y en esos momentos se ignoran las diferencias: burgueses, operarios, desempleados, ricos y pobres se hermanan en un mismo grito. Es un grito que iguala, que borra las diferencias y lo único que cuenta es la pasión deportiva.

*Miembro de la Asociación Psicoanalítica Internacional (IPA) y miembro titular en función didáctica en la Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina (APA)

Otro artículo relacionado: "El fútbol reflexionado y (con)jugado desde el psicoanálisis" de Gibrán Larrauri (2009)

A Psychological Analysis of Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club

How the World of Psychology Applies to This Famous Novel.

by Bryan R. Price.
Yahoo! Contributor Network.
May, 2007.

Fight Club was originally a novel by Chuck Palahniuk, and was made into a movie a short time after the book's success. Palahniuk's contemporary and often vulgar writing style has made the author not only a good fortune, but a huge fan base of support. In all of Palahniuk's books, a great deal of psychology theory and ideas are present- and Fight Club is no different.

Fight Club's success is more than just well written content- it was a book and movie geared towards younger men. Books such as "Little Women" and other women-themed movies were plentiful- but the same could not be said for male content. The book and movie differ in many ways- so focus will be put on the movie. In the movie, the main character's name is somewhat of a mystery. Through various clues, the avid film buff will notice that small hints suggest the character's name is Jack Moore, as seen on a check.
Jack is a rather disturbed individual, who suffers from insomnia. Jack sees a doctor, who tells him to visit a support group to see what pain really was- and declined to give Jack medicine. Jack finds an ability to sleep after going to these support groups, often of which he ends up crying to relieve stress from a common office job, common apartment, and a dull, bland, life. This is where things take a turn for the worst- as Marla Singer is introduced. She makes an appearance at one of the support groups for males only- so she is clearly what Jack calls a "faker". Jack is also a "faker", of course, but he finds that he can not enjoy the support groups knowing that Marla is there faking along with him. Eventually, he confronts her and they work out a temporary solution- which ultimately ends up failing.
Meanwhile, Jack meets Tyler Durden. Tyler is a strong hater of common culture, and considered to be a nihilist. Tyler and Jack form a much more involved friendship after Jack's apartment explodes- which effectively ruins his life and everything he owned. Tyler and Jack end up fighting in a parking lot out of being curious, and end up forming a fight club when other men start to join. These applicants are usually the type that grew up without a father- a rather interesting fact to take note while watching.
Throughout the movie, Tyler and Jack start to drift apart, as Tyler forms a project to attack popular consumer culture. Eventually, Jack and Tyler find themselves at the end of their efforts, with Tyler ready to watch a few credit card buildings explode from the amount of explosives he had ordered to be planted. Jack realizes that Tyler is actually him- and nothing more than an apparition or split personality. Jack ends up putting a gun inside his mouth and pulling the trigger, only to still live and realize that Tyler is gone. Jack then wakes up in a mental hospital, with the movie ending with a scene of the fight club members planning to continue their efforts against society- and claiming Tyler will come back.
The movie and book both focus on existentialism- which is the philosophy that an individual must make meaning from a chaotic and empty universe- and this individual is often the object of suffering. Throughout the movie, there are scenes where there is clear cut evidence of this. For instance, Tyler claims, "Only after disaster can we be resurrected" [1]. Another piece of evidence of existentialism comes when Tyler states, "It's only after we've lost everything that we are free to do anything." At one point, Tyler inflicts a chemical burn onto Jack, which is a lesson that tries to explain the sole fact that you will never get anywhere in life until hitting rock bottom. Existentialism defines the need for one to make decisions to better one's life- and that a person is who they are determined to be. Clearly, the movie focuses on this philosophy throughout the entire movie- as several main themes and subtexts are based from it.
Sigmund Freud is a notable psychologist that suggested the existence of the id, ego, and superego. The id is essentially the driving force that demands pleasure constantly [2]. The ego is the checks and balances of the id, as it waits for a safe or healthy moment for pleasure to be obtained. Finally, the superego is the moral standard that suppresses the id. Jack has a very interesting system of morals in Freud's terms. Jack is first satisfied with the common, bland life of having a normal job and condo. His superego is clearly doing a great job. However, it may be functioning all to well- as the id apparently creates Tyler Durden in an attempt to overcome its suppressor. While the id is successful in achieving its purpose, the ego is still operational. While it is hard to see, as Tyler and Jack are exact opposites- the ego acts as a mediator between the two in the end of the conflict. As Jack and Tyler become equally aware of each other, the ego can claim responsibility of bringing a sense of peace to the situation.
Also, there is the matter of gender identity confusion to take into effect. Although Jack shouldn't be considered feminine, there is a definite difference between Jack and Tyler in regards to masculinity. For instance, Jack collects furniture for a hobby. This is far from masculine, and far from the gender identity of Tyler. It would seem that the gender identity confusion adds to the correct balance of id and superego [3] - and ultimately helps Jack achieve things he otherwise could not. For instance, Jack gets into his first fight, albeit with himself. He defies his boss, in an act of rebellion against conformity. He also finds an attractive woman to date off and on, depending on the state of his identity. This lack of masculinity could be attributed to Jack's lack of a father figure in early childhood- but either way, it ends up causing catastrophic consequences in his personality.
Another psychologist, Abraham Maslow, suggested the idea of self-actualization. This is the idea that all humans try to make the most of their abilities, and to strive towards success to the fullest ability [4]. Individuals who achieve such self-actualization are considered to be creative, embrace facts rather than avoid them, spontaneous, appreciate life, like to solve puzzles, and of course have morals. Essentially, this is the act of achieving the peak of one's potential. Interestingly, there is a paradox within Fight Club concerning this subject. Tyler claims that men who wish to achieve freedom from a controlling father-figure will only be self-actualized once they have children and become fathers themselves. Essentially, the only way to self-actualization in this statement is to become what you are trying to defy. However, the narrator eliminates Tyler through shooting himself- and achieves self-actualization in effect.
Obviously, following a matriarch-style of development has either directly given Jack his problems, or at least contributed to them. As with other characters in the book and movie, most notably in the fight club, the majority of men relate to Jack through not experiencing a father figure. This has led a generation of youth develop without the guidance of a father- and in essence shaped masculinity through much harsher means. Interestingly, this has made an increase in schizophrenics [5]. Poverty is usually a cause of schizophrenia, and this is very much more common among single mother families than that of couples or single father families. This makes it very possible that Jack was suffering from schizophrenia because of poverty- although other factors could have been a direct cause. Heredity is another big cause of the disorder- and Jack's father was not mentioned in this context. It would appear that the exact cause of Jack's possible schizophrenia can not be determined because of lack of evidence.
Finally, it is important to relate psychosis and sleep deprivation to the film. Jack suffers from a bad case of insomnia- which can have detrimental effects. These effects can lead to forms of psychosis [6] - which makes schizophrenia a very viable effect as a result. When Jack is denied medication, he instead finds release in another form. Because of this he experiences schizophrenia less than he was before, although he might not have known it. It would seem that everything follows a massive chain reaction- which eventually leads to schizophrenia and an eventual internal conflict.
Fight Club is incredibly accurate in terms of validity. This comes to no surprise, as the author is both very qualified and very knowledgeable. Everything that could be explained in medical terms can likewise be explained through several theories or ideas. The effects of these health afflictions are very real- such as the insomnia or schizophrenia. Interesting psychological terms such as self-actualization and gender identity come into play- and with amazing accuracy. It seems Hollywood has made a successful and fact-proven work of art. Although, it would seem the credit should likely go to Chuck Palahniuk- who sold the rights of his works to have a movie made. Overall, the movie is incredibly accurate, and is definitely worth a place in any movie collector's shelf.

Presión social y suicidio: banca española suspende desalojos.

Armando G. Tejeda
Corresponsal del periódico La Jornada
Martes 13 de noviembre de 2012.
Madrid, 12 de noviembre. Después de 400 mil familias desalojadas de sus viviendas y tras la conmoción social provocada por el último suicidio a causa de una deuda hipotecaria –el tercero desde el comienzo de la crisis–, la banca española acordó la suspensión de los levantamientos en casos de extrema necesidad. La medida supone un éxito para la protesta social que comenzó hace cuatro años, cuando las instituciones financieras llevan expulsando de sus casas a 570 familias diarias en promedio, drama al que ahora también el gobierno del conservador Mariano Rajoy busca solución de urgencia, en clave de moratoria.

En España la palabra desahucio se ha convertido en sinónimo de desesperación y dolor, y en el mejor reflejo de lo que está significando la crisis económica y los recortes públicos entre los sectores sociales más desfavorecidos.

Los ciudadanos y las familias con créditos hipotecarios que se quedan sin trabajo –en el país la tasa de desempleo es la más alta de Europa, con 25 por ciento– y no pueden afrontar los pagos del crédito bancario se ven, en poco tiempo, con la soga al cuello. Los tribunales dictaminan a favor de los bancos en 99 por ciento de los casos, fruto del espíritu de la legislación considerada ilegal por organismos especializados de la Unión Europea (UE).

Así, además de sufrir el desalojo de sus viviendas, que pasan a formar parte de los activos del banco, la deuda no desaparece y los intereses crecen sin parar. Un círculo vicioso que ha condenado a más de 400 mil familias a la marginalidad, la emigración o, en los casos más extremos, al suicidio.

Por primera vez en todos estos años la Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros y la Asociación Española de la Banca acordaron suspender los desalojos en casos de extrema necesidad, alegando razones humanitarias.

El compromiso de los bancos entró en vigor ayer, con lo que a partir de ahora quedaron suspendidos miles de procedimientos abiertos en todo el país y que afectaban a familias con hijos, o con alguno de sus miembros en situación de enfermedad grave o que tenga a su cargo personas mayores que requieran atención.

El comunicado de los banqueros advierte que han decidido suspender la ejecución de desahucios de vivienda habitual de colectivos especialmente vulnerables, hasta la entrada en vigor de la reforma normativa anunciada por las autoridades. Matiza que se aplicará esta moratoria en casos de extrema necesidad.

A pesar del clamor social y de los numerosos actos de protesta, movilizaciones y súplicas de los afectados y de los colectivos ciudadanos que formaron brigadas para detener los desalojos con sentadas masivas frente a las viviendas afectadas, el gobierno del derechista Partido Popular (PP), y el anterior, del Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), han mirado para otro lado y se negaron hasta en cuatro ocasiones a modificar la ley hipotecaria o ayudar con medidas excepcionales a centenares de miles de personas.

Pero el último suicidio el pasado viernes de una ciudadana vasca de 53 años, Amaya Egaña, en Barakaldo, provocó que miles de personas salieran a las calles para expresar su repudio tanto a la banca como a la clase política, ciega ante este fenómeno trágico.

Esto provocó que por primera vez el gobierno y la ahora oposición socialista iniciaran conversaciones que se traducirán en algo concreto el próximo jueves, en el Consejo de Ministros, en el que se prevé la aprobación de medidas que facilitarán la moratoria de los desalojos, al menos en los casos más graves.

En las conversaciones, tanto políticos, gobierno y PSOE excluyeron a los únicos partidos políticos que se habían interesado por este problema y que habían presentado iniciativas para resolverlo, como son Izquierda Unida, Amaiur, Esquerra Republicana de Cataluña y Compromis.

Decenas de ciudadanos que han formado parte de las brigadas de Stop Desahucios se concentraron frente a la sede central del PP para llevar a cabo una sonora cacerolada para llamar la atención de la ceguera que ha caracterizado al gobierno sobre este problema. Ahí gritaron consignas como: Vergüenza me daría desahuciar a una familia o No son suicidios, son asesinatos, entre otros, al tiempo que reclamaron un lugar en las conversaciones públicas para expresar la postura de los afectados.

Ante la indignación general contra la banca, otro grupo de indignados realizó una protesta en el Banco de España, donde realizaron una ocupación simbólica y pacífica en la que también expresaron su opinión de que los suicidios que han tenido como trasfondo los desalojos por deudas bancarias son en realidad asesinatos del sistema y la banca. Según el código penal, quien lleva a otra persona al suicidio debe cumplir una pena de ocho años de cárcel. Por eso preguntamos: ¿por qué los bancos no pagan esa condena? ¿A cuántos más vais a matar?, preguntaron.

jueves, 8 de noviembre de 2012

Los humanos se pueden comunicar a través del olor.

Un nuevo experimento demostró que las emociones de miedo y enojo pueden ser traspasadas al sudor, provocando el mismo sentimiento en las personas que lo huelen.

Un nuevo estudio publicado en la revista Psychological Science señala que el sudor proveniente de individuos que sienten un cierto sentimiento desencadena el mismo sentimiento en aquellos que lo huelen.
El Dr. Gun Semin de la Universidad de Utrecht señaló que anteriores investigaciones habían demostrado que mirar una expresión de miedo en otra persona nos hacía respirar más por la nariz y se aceleraba el movimiento de los ojos. De manera similar, las señales de enojo hacen que frunzamos la nariz y bajemos nuestras cejas en respuesta a una posible amenaza.
Semin y sus colegas pensaron que la misma reacción podría producirse por las reacciones químicas del cuerpo, tales como el sudor. "Específicamente, las personas que inhalaban señales químicas asociadas con el miedo podrían tener expresiones de miedo y mostrar señales de adquisición sensorial, mientras que las personas que inhalaban señales químicas asociadas con enojo adoptarían una expresión de enojo y mostrarían señales de rechazo sensorial".
Los investigadores recolectaron muestras de sudor mientras que grababan las expresiones faciales de las personas que las olían.
Las mujeres que eran expuestas a señales químicas del sudor de miedo adoptaban expresiones faciales de miedo, mientras que las mujeres que fueron expuestas a las señales químicas del sudor de enojo adoptaron expresiones faciales de enojo.
La exposición a sudor de miedo y enojo también alteraron otros sentidos de las mujeres, tales como sus patrones de respiración y el movimiento de los ojos.
De acuerdo a Semin, este descubrimiento es importante porque contradice la creencia popular de que las comunicaciones entre las personas se limita al lenguaje y a las señales visuales".
De acuerdo al experto, los resultados sugieren además que estas señales químicas actúan fuera de la conciencia, pues las mujeres no se daba cuenta de lo que estaban inhalando ni tampoco se daban cuenta de su propia reacción.
Este fenómeno también podría explicar el "contagio de emociones" que tienen las personas cuando se encuentran en multitudes.